Barlett played under Middendorp when he represented Amakhosi between 2006 and 2008.
Bartlett, a former University of Pretoria and Golden Arrows head coach, takes over the role of Patrick Mabedi, who was sacked last week along with Giovanni Solinas.
The 46-year-old recently helped Bafana mentor Stuart Baxter prepare the national side for 2019 African Nations Cup qualifiers with Seychelles and Nigeria.
Bartlett scored 29 times in 74 appearances for Bafana, notably helping South Africa win the Nations Cup on home soil in 1996.
He enjoyed a fine career overseas, turning out for the likes of Switzerland's FC Zürich and England’s Charlton Athletic.