The former Chelsea striker made the announcement after the Africa Cup of Nations holders were eliminated at the group stage of the 2017 continental showpiece in Gabon.
The west African powerhouse finished third in Group B, behind DR Congo and Morocco, following a 1-0 defeat to Morocco on Tuesday night.
Kalou says it's time for the next generation of Ivorian stars to make their mark on the international stage.
"I am 31, this is my sixth Africa Cup of Nations. I have been to a final and won another," said the Premier League and FA Cup winner.
"This time things did not go so well. There are young players like (Franck) Kessie, (Wilfried) Zaha.
"I think they are the future of Ivorian football and I wish them good luck."
Kalou made his debut for the Elephants 10 years ago and has 89 caps.
He has been with Hertha Berlin for the last three seasons and has netted five goals in nine Bundesliga matches this campaign.