The hosts will face Germany in the semi-finals after beating Colombia 2-1 thanks to Thiago Silva scoring early on before David Luiz's 35-yard free-kick meant James Rodriguez's penalty was mere consolation.
Late in the game Neymar left the field on a stretcher.
The 22-year-old was in tears after taking a knee to the back from Juan Zuniga, with Brazil doctor Rodrigo Lasmar confirming he has sustained a fractured vertebra that will end his World Cup.
"It's not serious in the sense that it doesn't need surgery, but he'll need to immobilise it to recover," Lasmar said. "Unfortunately, he's not going to be able to play."