Africa failed to muster a single representative in the knockout stages of Russia 2018 - while Egypt and Morocco failed to record a single win.
In a tournament where Africa were expected to take their international football to a new level, Infantino, who recently received support from CAF for the next FIFA election, set a challenge for the leaders of the continent.
"Looking at the results of African teams in the World Cup in Russia must force the football leaders to find out how the teams can perform better," Infantino told reporters, as quoted by ESPN.
"Africa must ask questions on World Cup performance, and how their teams can get better."
However, Infantino did have praise for Africa's embracing of VAR, which was used during Wydad Casablanca's CAF Super Cup victory over TP Mazembe in February.
"I am happy that Africa embraced the VAR because it shows that Africa is a modern continent," Infantino added.
"The Video Assistant Referee has helped football because initially, referees had difficult tasks and now this machine is making it easier for them."